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Introducing Android Package Signer

The Android Package Signer library is a new open-source JavaScript library that allows web developers to both generate signing keys and use signing keys to sign Android packages, all entirely in browser. It’s designed to allow anyone who runs app building as a service to do so without requiring users to upload their credentials, an important part of keeping signing keys secure⁠. As a bonus, this package also removes a dependency on Java for developers looking to sign their pre-built unsigned Android packages.

Android Package Signer and Bubblewrap

Bubblewrap⁠ is a project created to help web developers package their Progressive Web Apps for distribution on Google Play and has been used as the foundation of some app bundling services. Often, though, this meant users were handing over their Android signing keys and password when creating a new project without knowing if they were being stored or potentially leaked. Having a leaked key could allow a malicious party to impersonate a developer and release harmful package updates that would otherwise appear to be legitimate.

Installation and Usage

The Android Package Signer repository⁠ is the best place to go to keep up-to-date with the package.

To add Android Package Signer to your project, first install it from NPM:

npm i @chromeos/android-package-signer

From there, require it in your project and initialize it. The password is a string and should be a minimum of six characters long. This will protect your keystore, so the longer the password, the better.

import { PackageSigner } from 'android-package-signer';
const packageSigner = new PackageSigner(password: string, alias: string = 'android');

This will instantiate a class that can be used to generate a key and sign a package with a key. To generate a key, pass the class’s generateKey method a DName object.

export interface DName {
  commonName: string;
  organizationName: string;
  organizationUnit: string;
  countryCode: string;

// In your code
const base64Der = await packageSigner.generateKey({
  commonName: 'Alexander Nohe',
  organizationName: 'Google, Inc',
  organizationUnit: 'DevRel',
  countryCode: 'US',

The response from the generateKey function is a base64-encoded der formatted PKCS12 keystore. As an example, to save this keystore to a file, download the base64Der string contents to a file. In the below example we use an anchor element with a href attribute containing the base64 encoded keystore. Using the File System Access API⁠ is also a good solution.

// To download the keys.
const downloadElement: HTMLAnchorElement = document.querySelector('#key-gen-results');
downloadElement.href = base64Der; = 'generatedKey.p12';
downloadElement.innerText = 'Download Generated Key';

For signing an Android package, use the following:

const [fileHandle] = await window.showOpenFilePicker();
const zipBlob = await fileHandle.getFile();
const creator = '0.1.0 (Android App Signer JS)';
const p12b64Der = loadStoredKeystore();
const signedPackage = await packageSigner.signPackage(zipBlob, p12b64Der, creator);

signPackage signs and zipaligns your Android package returning a base64 encoded zip file which can be downloaded (can be downloaded similarly to how the key was downloaded) and distributed to your favorite Android application stores.

Please install the package and let us know what you think!